Everything You Know About Tablets & Capsules Is Wrong

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Among the popular oral dosage form, the tablet and capsule are two of them. There is a reason for a person to understand the tablet manufacturing process. The tablet manufacturing process knowledge is vital for students studying pharmacy, tablet press manufacturers, medical practitioners, or physicians, among other professions. The manufacture and design of pharmaceutical tablets is a multi-stage complex process whereby the formulation scientists ensure that the drug substance’s correct amount is delivered at the appropriate time in the proper form. Also, in the desired location and reasonable rate along with its protected chemical integrity to that point. Generally, most drug substances fail to possess the needed properties, which offer good flow, usually from the hopper to the tablet presses die cavity. Thus they are subjected to pre-treatment either in combination or alone along with suitable excipients for free-flowing granules formation that lends themselves to tableting. Just like the tablet manufacturer in India, several others can be found across the globe.

 Manufacturing machines

As there is a range of tablets available in the market, one must expect distinctive machine types. The reason is distinctive tablets need distinctive manufacturing processes and formulations. Standard machines that be used in pharmaceutical tablets manufacturing comprise:

One can use such machines for specific purposes like the active pharmaceutical ingredients measurement.

Steps for tablet formulation

  1. Dispensing- Each ingredient present in the tablet formula is accurately dispensed and weighed as per dose. In any formulation process, this is one of the critical steps and must be done under technical supervision.
  2. Sizing- The formulation ingredients should be in finely divided form. Or, in another case, the size reduction is carried out for better easy mixing and flow properties.
  3. Power blending- With suitable blender usage, the powders are mixed to obtain a homogeneous and uniform powder mix. The excipients and drug substances are mixed chiefly in a geometric dilution.
  4. Granulation- In this, gathering together of small powder particles is done into layers and permanent aggregating for rendering them into the state as free-flowing.
  5. Drying and dry screening- The screened wet granules must be dried for a specific period in a fluid bed dryer and tray dryer at a controlled temperature that fails to exceed 550C. With the help of an appropriate mesh screen, the dried granules are screened.
  6. Tablet compression- In this step, the granules compression is done into a convex or flat, oblong, round or unique shaped, unscored or scored tablets and generally engraved along an identifying code number and symbol with the usage of a tablet press.
  7. Coating- The granules and tablets are coated in case there is a need to mask the unpleasant odor/ taste of some drug substance or boost the uncoated tablet’s aesthetic appeal, also for the modification of release or control of the drug substance’s release from tablets. It can be achieved by covering or enclosing the core granules or tablets and coating solutions.

Storing and packaging of tablets

Before tablets are distributed, they are packaged with the help of appropriate packaging material. The packaging material kind used is a choice and up to several factors. 

Usually, the tablets are packaged using strip packs and blisters, kept in low humidity places, and protected from extremes in temperature. The packaging offers excellent environmental protection for each tablet unit and an aesthetically efficacious and pleasing appearance. Such packaging also offers some tamper resistance degree to the dosage form. Metal containers, paperboard drums, plastic or glass bottles, or cartons might be used along with polyethylene liners for larger quantities delivered to the pharmacist. In case the stuffing of cotton wool is being used under such circumstances, then it is a benefit for the liners to be external, and thus, any moisture that it comprises failed to gain access to the tablets. When exposed to moisture, the decomposed can also be packaged with the desiccant packet. In containers of light resistance, the light-sensitive tablets are being packed.

Quality control tests

Before a company starts marketing the tablets, there is a need to be sure that for human usage, they are fit. One has to subject the tablets with the help of a test series before even releasing them to the public. The tablets are required to conform to the pharmaceutical industry’s official compendium and conventional needs. There are mainly two categories in which the series of tests fall:

Excipients usage

In addition to the therapeutic agents, the tablets comprise excipients needed to ensure the process as satisfactory production. Such inert materials might be added to the drug substance to increase its bulk and offer those desirable properties chiefly lacked alone in the drug substance.

Several excipients usage in tablet formulation are just multi-functional then they might serve more than one function. Thus they can affect the tablets or powder’s properties at varying concentrations.

Generally, all excipients usage in tablet formulation might fail to be present in all tablet formulas. Several like microcrystalline cellulose, stearates, and lactose are usual for the tablet’s vast majority. The excipients usage in tablet formulations comprises granulating or binders fluid, lubricants, colorants, diluents, glidants, disintegrants, flavourants, surfactants, sweeteners, and absorbents.

Factors affecting the formulation process

Conclusion

It can be concluded that pharma capsule manufacturers usually manufacture them using direct compression, dry granulation, and wet granulation. They chiefly vary in hardness, weight, shape, disintegration, dissolution, and thickness and share characteristics among other chief aspects.

 Manufacturing machines

As there is a range of tablets available in the market, one must expect distinctive machine types. The reason is distinctive tablets need distinctive manufacturing processes and formulations. Standard machines that be used in pharmaceutical tablets manufacturing comprise:

One can use such machines for specific purposes like the active pharmaceutical ingredients measurement.

Steps for tablet formulation

  1. Dispensing- Each ingredient present in the tablet formula is accurately dispensed and weighed as per dose. In any formulation process, this is one of the critical steps and must be done under technical supervision.
  2. Sizing- The formulation ingredients should be in finely divided form. Or, in another case, the size reduction is carried out for better easy mixing and flow properties.
  3. Power blending- With suitable blender usage, the powders are mixed to obtain a homogeneous and uniform powder mix. The excipients and drug substances are mixed chiefly in a geometric dilution.
  4. Granulation- In this, gathering together of small powder particles is done into layers and permanent aggregating for rendering them into the state as free-flowing.
  5. Drying and dry screening- The screened wet granules must be dried for a specific period in a fluid bed dryer and tray dryer at a controlled temperature that fails to exceed 550C. With the help of an appropriate mesh screen, the dried granules are screened.
  6. Tablet compression- In this step, the granules compression is done into a convex or flat, oblong, round or unique shaped, unscored or scored tablets and generally engraved along an identifying code number and symbol with the usage of a tablet press.
  7. Coating- The granules and tablets are coated in case there is a need to mask the unpleasant odor/ taste of some drug substance or boost the uncoated tablet’s aesthetic appeal, also for the modification of release or control of the drug substance’s release from tablets. It can be achieved by covering or enclosing the core granules or tablets and coating solutions.

Storing and packaging of tablets

Before tablets are distributed, they are packaged with the help of appropriate packaging material. The packaging material kind used is a choice and up to several factors. 

Usually, the tablets are packaged using strip packs and blisters, kept in low humidity places, and protected from extremes in temperature. The packaging offers excellent environmental protection for each tablet unit and an aesthetically efficacious and pleasing appearance. Such packaging also offers some tamper resistance degree to the dosage form. Metal containers, paperboard drums, plastic or glass bottles, or cartons might be used along with polyethylene liners for larger quantities delivered to the pharmacist. In case the stuffing of cotton wool is being used under such circumstances, then it is a benefit for the liners to be external, and thus, any moisture that it comprises failed to gain access to the tablets. When exposed to moisture, the decomposed can also be packaged with the desiccant packet. In containers of light resistance, the light-sensitive tablets are being packed.

Quality control tests

Before a company starts marketing the tablets, there is a need to be sure that for human usage, they are fit. One has to subject the tablets with the help of a test series before even releasing them to the public. The tablets are required to conform to the pharmaceutical industry’s official compendium and conventional needs. There are mainly two categories in which the series of tests fall:

Excipients usage

In addition to the therapeutic agents, the tablets comprise excipients needed to ensure the process as satisfactory production. Such inert materials might be added to the drug substance to increase its bulk and offer those desirable properties chiefly lacked alone in the drug substance.

Several excipients usage in tablet formulation are just multi-functional then they might serve more than one function. Thus they can affect the tablets or powder’s properties at varying concentrations.

Generally, all excipients usage in tablet formulation might fail to be present in all tablet formulas. Several like microcrystalline cellulose, stearates, and lactose are usual for the tablet’s vast majority. The excipients usage in tablet formulations comprises granulating or binders fluid, lubricants, colorants, diluents, glidants, disintegrants, flavourants, surfactants, sweeteners, and absorbents.

Factors affecting the formulation process

Conclusion

It can be concluded that pharma capsule manufacturers usually manufacture them using direct compression, dry granulation, and wet granulation. They chiefly vary in hardness, weight, shape, disintegration, dissolution, and thickness and share characteristics among other chief aspects.

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